How to mesh the three speeds of light together!

Frank Pio Russo - January 18, 2013.

Abstract: There are 3 speeds of light as opposed to the experimental speed science only knows about. These include the aberration speed and the "inflated" speed that are seen all over the universe... as well as these there are relative speeds which can be worked out in the Michelson-Morley experiment: the one with the orbital velocity which is a slow speed, and the one against the orbital velocity which is a fast speed. All of these speeds are essential to our understanding of how light moves.

Back in 1998 a top journal editor complained saying that I was cheating, because I had two speeds of light... [1] I replied saying that my aberration speed was the real speed, whereas the other one was only an experimental speed through our experimentations. Well I've now got three speeds of light that I'm using... that editor might be really surprised!

The real speed which is worked out through aberration is 304,475,873.2 m/sec [2]. The experimental speed on the other hand, is of course equal to 299,792,458m/sec and has generally been viewed as an average of the away and back paths. However, because the observed aberration is not a very large amount, I've long speculated the existence of an "inflated" speed along the hypotenuse of the right angle triangle, where the upright is 304,475,873.2 m/sec and the approximate base is V absolute or 53,198,115.45 m/sec ... this would make the "inflated" c equal 309,088,331.8 m/sec (I won't worry about the error levels involved for the time being). This "inflated" speed of light is of course only a theoretical consideration which serves us well in visualizing what takes place.

Well this speculation has become reality! The experimental speed is not really an average speed at all, because two seconds of it would comprise the average of 1.174720299 second at 255,203,267 m/sec, and 0.825279701 second at 363,261,640.2 m/sec [3], (see ), giving a distance of 299,792,458 m both ways. However, the average of a second of each speed would be equal to 309,232,453.6 m/sec ... that's only a variation of 0.046628% on the earlier perpendicular "inflated" worked out value! For we must remember that the absolute V is only an approximation for in this instance we should have used an 'inflated' V - remember that the experimental speed of light was used in its calculation... we of course should have included the "inflated" C  in its calculation instead, but we couldn't because we didn't have it  just yet: hence both V-absolute and c-inflated are only very inaccurate approximations which will have to do for the time being... let's hope the experimentalists lift their game! (I must here also clarify that it has been mentioned that I was one of the first to use numbers in my 1998 Michelson-Morley diagram, this was because I was able to introduce the "summation of a series" and thus work out everything to 10 digits... in practice this is of course a bit of an overkill because our current speed of light has 9 digits only through being defined as such i.e. 299,792,458 m/sec.)

The average person may not be able to appreciate all of the foregoing... I can however put the matter in another way which can be easily grasped! If the speed of light was just the average of the away and return leg distance travelled, then the Michelson-Morley would not have been the profundity it has remained for over 100 years! One must remember that the universe has been found to be anisotropic... hence my Michelson-Morley work has shown that equal distances can involve a slow speed for a long duration in one direction and a fast speed for a shorter duration back to the moving origin!

I hope that everybody can see that the three speeds of light that I have presented, can be made to mesh together beautifully like a chess combination from grandmaster struggles. I would also like to add a brief word about frames of references... people usually regard them as mutually exclusive... i.e. you're either in the absolute frame or you're in a moving inertial frame... however the truth is that you're always in both frames - just because you're in a moving frame does not mean you're not in the absolute frame as well! Light can have a relative speed in your moving frame, and at the same time continue to have an absolute speed in the absolute frame!

I could of course go on and elaborate the matter much further, I however would rather be the spark needed, and let the influential opinion-makers of this academic world do their job... may true knowledge always triumph in the end!

Frank Russo.


1. Russo F.P.(1998) The Michelson-Morley experiment : the final solution? Speculations in Science and Technology, 21, 73-78.

2. Russo F.P.(1995) Analysis of Stellar Aberration yields the real speed of Light. Speculations in Science and Technology,18, 200- 204

3. Russo F.P.(1998) The Michelson-Morley experiment : the final solution? (Addendum); Speculations in Science and Technology, 21, 201-203.