The Complete Picture in Diabetes -
Frank P Russo - October 3 2005.
To get the overall picture in diabetes one must go beyond considerations of plasma and serum glucoses, and consider the intracellular system somewhat. This is because in diabetes it is the latter that suffers from a lack of glucose benefits!
Now one may find it surprising that there is very little free glucose in cells. Furthermore most of it exists in the form of “glucose-6-phosphate” … this is obviously achieved through the usage of high energy ATP (converted to ADP), which might originate via released binding energy from complex foods. It therefore follows that this glucose-6-phosphate can be an important “energy reservoir” by going in the opposite direction … i.e. back to glucose and generating ATP energy. This important realization came to me through the simple observations that when my hands were very warm on a cold day, the finger-glucoses were very high, but as soon as I cooled the hands with cold water the glucoses became much lower.
The conclusion from the foregoing actually answers a common paradox as to where all the sugars from a diabetic are coming from: it appears that the actual production of sugars is an energy producing step that may be used by the body. This is very sound thinking and is not the first time where the body uses an “energy reservoir” like glucose-6-phosphate for it does so in the “Embden-Myerhof” pathway where glucose is involved in anaerobic glycolysis. In the latter pathway the energy pathway is 2,3DPG i.e. 2,3 -DiphosphoGlycerate. In other words, for every 2,3DPG molecule formed an ATP is wasted … but then going the other way from this “energy buffering”, for every 1,3DiphosphoGlycerate that is reformed from 2,3DPG an ATP is once again formed.
Now diverging laterally, stored blood eventually exhausts its 2,3DPG stock and looses all of its oxygen-carrying capacity … so much so that JWs actually thought that a transfusion was worse than saline. However the oxygen factor is mainly relevant in a loss of more than half of one’s blood volume, in which case one can use fresh blood (or simply add some 2,3DPG to restore the oxygen carrying capacity). THIS COULD WELL PROVE TO BE THE ANSWER IN DIABETES, for with the energy stores depleted one not only can’t go easily beyond glucose unless he uses energy (ATP), but can actually generate energy more readily by returning back to the starting point from any glucose-phosphate already formed!
Hence the answer to diabetes could possibly be a replenishment of the energy batteries through a “2,3DPG” injection. This becomes a very realistic picture when one considers that the diabetic problem is mainly in the blood, as the catabolic reactions in the cellular mitochondria(s) are no problem, and the only reason the red blood cells use the Embden-Myerhof pathway is presumably because the red-blood-cells do not possess any mitochondria(s).
Let me now summarize where this new knowledge fits in with my past diabetic research findings. For a start, I had a faulty (?bogus) glucose machine for some of the time … this would however not have changed my astronomical iron and ascorbic acid levels, which would have resulted in much higher glucose levels. The other interesting fact that remains unchanged, is that for a particular volume of urine at 37 Celsius, one would need to use 540 times the amount of energy to evaporate such a volume through the skin. Now if one happens to have a compromised skin, such energy requirements may become prohibitive and result in diabetes!
Of course, we have been talking about “mature onset diabetes” where the insulin levels have not been a problem for most of one’s life: however if the energy reservoirs can go flat as an adult, what’s there to stop them exhausting themselves for juveniles in some cases. In conclusion then, the mentioned red-cell-pathway is only used in 90 percent of the total as 10% of it is dealt with aerobically. Furthermore, to show you how much 2,3DPG is in red-blood-cells, two thirds of all the phosphorus in red-blood-cells is in “2,3DiPhosphoGlycerate”. May this prove to be the answer to this miserable disease that severely affects so many persons.
REFERENCES: 1. “Clinical Haematology” by M.M. Wintrobe
2. “Principles of Human Physiology” by Tortora, Evans and Anagnostakos.